1: Genet Med. 2003 Jul-Aug;5(4):311-21.

Williams syndrome deficits in visual spatial processing linked to GTF2IRD1 and GTF2I on chromosome 7q11.23.

Hirota H, Matsuoka R, Chen XN, Salandanan LS, Lincoln A, Rose FE, Sunahara M, Osawa M, Bellugi U, Korenberg JR.

Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Tokyo Women’s Medical University, Tokyo, Japan.
PURPOSE: To identify the relationship between specific genes and phenotypic features of Williams syndrome. METHODS: Subjects were selected based on their deletion status determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization using a panel of 24 BACs and cosmids spanning the region commonly deleted and single gene analysis using Southern blotting. From the cohort of subjects, three had atypical deletions. Physical examinations and cognitive tests were administered to the three subjects and the results were compared to those from a cohort of typical WS subjects. RESULTS: The molecular results indicate smaller deletions for each subject. In all three cases, typical Williams facies were absent and visual spatial abilities were above that of full deletion WS subjects, particularly in the qualitative aspects of visual spatial processing. CONCLUSIONS: Combining the molecular analysis with the cognitive results suggest that the genes GTF2IRD1 and GTF2I contribute to deficits on visual spatial functioning.

PMID: 12865760 [PubMed – in process]

2: Nature. 2003 Jul 10;424(6945):157-64.

The DNA sequence of human chromosome 7.

Hillier LW, Fulton RS, Fulton LA, Graves TA, Pepin KH, Wagner-McPherson C, Layman D, Maas J, Jaeger S, Walker R, Wylie K, Sekhon M, Becker MC, O’Laughlin MD, Schaller ME, Fewell GA, Delehaunty KD, Miner TL, Nash WE, Cordes M, Du H, Sun H, Edwards J, Bradshaw-Cordum H, Ali J, Andrews S, Isak A, Vanbrunt A, Nguyen C, Du F, Lamar B, Courtney L, Kalicki J, Ozersky P, Bielicki L, Scott K, Holmes A, Harkins R, Harris A, Strong CM, Hou S, Tomlinson C, Dauphin-Kohlberg S, Kozlowicz-Reilly A, Leonard S, Rohlfing T, Rock SM, Tin-Wollam AM, Abbott A, Minx P, Maupin R, Strowmatt C, Latreille P, Miller N, Johnson D, Murray J, Woessner JP, Wendl MC, Yang SP, Schultz BR, Wallis JW, Spieth J, Bieri TA, Nelson JO, Berkowicz N, Wohldmann PE, Cook LL, Hickenbotham MT, Eldred J, Williams D, Bedell JA, Mardis ER, Clifton SW, Chissoe SL, Marra MA, Raymond C, Haugen E, Gillett W, Zhou Y, James R, Phelps K, Iadanoto! S, Bubb K, Simms E, Levy R, Clendenning J, Kaul R, Kent WJ, Furey TS, Baertsch RA, Brent MR, Keibler E, Flicek P, Bork P, Suyama M, Bailey JA, Portnoy ME, Torrents D, Chinwalla AT, Gish WR, Eddy SR, McPherson JD, Olson MV, Eichler EE, Green ED, Waterston RH, Wilson RK.

Genome Sequencing Center, Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8501, 4444 Forest Park Avenue, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA.
Human chromosome 7 has historically received prominent attention in the human genetics community, primarily related to the search for the cystic fibrosis gene and the frequent cytogenetic changes associated with various forms of cancer. Here we present more than 153 million base pairs representing 99.4% of the euchromatic sequence of chromosome 7, the first metacentric chromosome completed so far. The sequence has excellent concordance with previously established physical and genetic maps, and it exhibits an unusual amount of segmentally duplicated sequence (8.2%), with marked differences between the two arms. Our initial analyses have identified 1,150 protein-coding genes, 605 of which have been confirmed by complementary DNA sequences, and an additional 941 pseudogenes. Of genes confirmed by transcript sequences, some are polymorphic for mutations that disrupt the reading frame.

PMID: 12853948 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

3: J Med Genet. 2003 Jul;40(7):526-30.

Unusual cognitive and behavioural profile in a Williams syndrome patient with atypical 7q11.23 deletion.

Gagliardi C, Bonaglia MC, Selicorni A, Borgatti R, Giorda R.

Publication Types: Letter

PMID: 12843326 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

4: Am J Med Genet. 2003 Jul 30;120A(3):320-5.

Heat shock protein 27 gene: chromosomal and molecular location and relationship to Williams syndrome.

Stock AD, Spallone PA, Dennis TR, Netski D, Morris CA, Mervis CB, Hobart HH.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Genetics, Laboratory of Molecular Cytogenetics, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Las Vegas 89102, USA.
Heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) is one of a number of actin-binding proteins that regulate actin polymerization. Three related HSP27 sequences had previously been mapped to chromosomes 3, 9, and X. We have used fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) to correct and refine the map position of the transcribed HSP27 gene (locus HSPB1) to chromosome 7q11.23. This band also contains the site of the deletion associated with Williams syndrome (WS). To define the relationship between HSP27 and the WS deletion, we used two-color FISH on previously G-banded and photographed metaphase chromosomes from WS cell-lines and peripheral blood. Six WS patients with longer deletions that extend telomeric to the classical WS deletion region were analyzed for deletion length using HSP27, cosmids generated from P193O22 (cos11) and B350L10 (cos64 and 82), B350L10, B161A02, and B363M4. The BAC 363M4 was selected from the Washington University database and contains HSP27. Our results indicated that HSP27 was deleted in three patients and that HSP27 is telomeric to cos11, cos64, cos82, and B350L10. B363M4 was demonstrated to overlap the telomeric end of B161A02 and HSP27 may be contained partially within the telomeric end of B161A02. The possible role of HSP27 in the cognitive features of WS is discussed. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

PMID: 12838549 [PubMed – in process]

5: Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2003 Jul;59(3):380-6.

Endovascular stent implantation in patients with stenotic aortoarteriopathies: Early and medium-term results.

Siwik ES, Perry SB, Lock JE.

Rainbow Babies and Children’s Hospital, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio.
Data regarding stent implantation for stenotic aortoarteriopathy (SAA) are incomplete. We report on nine patients with this rare syndrome who underwent arterial stent implantation. Indications, results, and complications for patients with SAA were reviewed. Nine patients underwent 11 procedures. Twenty-two stents were implanted in the aorta or brachiocephalic vessels. Five patients had diffuse stenoses, three patients had middle aortic syndrome, and one patient had thoracic and abdominal coarctation. Associated diagnoses included Williams syndrome (2), neurofibromatosis (2), Takayasu’s (1), and congenital rubella (1). Median gradient was 60 mm Hg (20-140 mm Hg). Poststent gradient was 15 mm Hg (0-60 mm Hg; P < 0.001). Additional stents were implanted in two patients and five underwent stent redilation. Two patients (22%) were found to have aneurysm formation. Stent implantation effectively provides gradient relief in SAA. Gradient reduction persists or is amenable to redilation. Importantly, however, uncomplicated stent implantation does not preclude aneurysm formation and may be more common than in traditional patient groups. Cathet Cardiovasc Intervent 2003;59:380-386. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

PMID: 12822165 [PubMed – in process]

6: Am J Hum Genet. 2003 Jul;73(1):131-51. Epub 2003 Jun 09.

Mutational mechanisms of Williams-Beuren syndrome deletions.

Bayes M, Magano LF, Rivera N, Flores R, Perez Jurado LA.

Unitat de Genetica, Departament Ciencies Experimentals i de la Salut, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Doctor Aiguader 80, 08003 Barcelona, Spain. luis.perez@cexs.upf.es
Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a segmental aneusomy syndrome that results from a heterozygous deletion of contiguous genes at 7q11.23. Three large region-specific low-copy repeat elements (LCRs), composed of different blocks (A, B, and C), flank the WBS deletion interval and are thought to predispose to misalignment and unequal crossing-over, causing the deletions. In this study, we have determined the exact deletion size and LCR copy number in 74 patients with WBS, as well as precisely defined deletion breakpoints in 30 of them, using LCR-specific nucleotide differences. Most patients (95%) exhibit a 1.55-Mb deletion caused by recombination between centromeric and medial block B copies, which share approximately 99.6% sequence identity along 105-143 kb. In these cases, deletion breakpoints were mapped at several sites within the recombinant block B, with a cluster (>27%) occurring at a 12 kb region within the GTF2I/GTF2IP1 gene. Almost one-third (28%) of the transmitting progenitors were found to be heterozygous for an inversion between centromeric and telomeric LCRs. All deletion breakpoints in the patients with the inversion occurred in the distal 38-kb block B region only present in the telomeric and medial copies. Finally, only four patients (5%) displayed a larger deletion ( approximately 1.84 Mb) caused by recombination between centromeric and medial block A copies. We propose models for the specific pairing and precise aberrant recombination leading to each of the different germline rearrangements that occur in this region, including inversions and deletions associated with WBS. Chromosomal instability at 7q11.23 is directly related to the genomic structure of the region.

PMID: 12796854 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]